Animal Hoarding – Similarità e Differenze [Disturbo da accumulo .9]

L’Animal Hoarding è caratterizzato dalla raccolta di un numero importante di animali (spesso nell’ordine delle centinaia), dalla incapacità di fornire loro ambiente e cure adeguate e dalla significativa riduzione degli aspetti personali di salute, igiene, funzionamento sociale e lavorativo.

Con la recente inclusione dell’Hoarding Disorder nel DSM-V si è automaticamente riproposto un tema noto in letteratura sulla differenziazione tra Hoarding Disorder ed Animal Hoarding. Ovvero, la differenza qualitativa degli “oggetti” di accumulo discrimina un disturbo totalmente differente, oppure l’Animal Hoarding può essere considerato un sottotipo di Hoarding Disorder? Il concetto di differenza “qualitativa” è in realtà un po’ riduttivo. Da un lato parliamo di oggetti inanimati (giornali, vestiti, ecc.) e dall’altro di esseri viventi (gatti, cani, ecc.), aspetto che introduce più di una varianza semplicemente “merceologica”. Le risposte vanno differenziate su differenti livelli. Se restringiamo il tema semplicemente ai criteri diagnostici del DSM-V, ad oggi l’oggetto di accumulo non compare come discriminante di diagnosi pertanto chi accumula animali non è differenziabile da chi accumula oggetti. Sono infatti comuni alle due tipologie di accumulo gli ambienti caotici e fuori controllo, la disorganizzazione grave e tutti gli aspetti disfunzionali derivanti. In realtà sul piano clinico vi sono si delle somiglianze ma anche numerose e notevoli differenze che fanno propendere a seconda della tipizzazione di Animal Hoarder (overwhelmed caregiver, rescuer hoarder ed exploiter hoarder) nei primi due casi per un sottotipo “grave” dell’Hoarding Disorder e nell’ultimo per un disturbo diverso maggiormente collegabile ad aspetti di espressione di disturbi di personalità del cluster B (Antisociale, Borderline, ecc.).

Questa complessità specifica ha ovviamente delle ripercussioni anche in termini di trattamento dell’Animal Hoarder. Il  modello terapeutico di Frost & Steketee per l’Hoarding Disorder non è purtroppo applicabile all’Animal Hoarding. Ogni caso va pertanto valutato e trattato in modo del tutto peculiare. Non esistono ad oggi studi controllati sul trattamento dell’Animal Hoarding tuttavia alcuni elementi noti possono dare una direttrice di intervento che deve tener conto di:

  • una più alta comorbilità con altri disturbi rispetto all’Hoarding Disorder
  • pervasivi aspetti problematici in termini di attaccamento
  • storie traumatiche quasi sempre presenti

Nonostante molta sia l’attività di ricerca ancora in corso sul tema è già possibile tentare una tabella comparativa di somiglianze e di differenze tra Hoarding Disorder ed Animal Hoarding. In particolare la tabella qui proposta è adattata in parte da un articolo di Frost del 2011 apparso su Depression & Anxiety (“Comparison of Object and Animal Hoarding”) ed in parte dalle risorse messe a disposizione dal “Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium – HARC“.

Animal Hoarding

Animal Hoarding

 

Alessandro Marcengo [amarcengo@psicoterapie.pro]

 

Altri Post suHoarding Disorder, Disposofobia, Accumulo Compulsivo

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